Edwin Atlee Barber was an American archaeologist who lived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His specialty was pottery. He as the author of over 200 articles and 11 books on the subject. At one time he served as a director of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. His Marks of American Potters, published in 1904, is still relevant today to collectors of pottery, porcelain and china. It provides background on early American potters and gives examples of what their makers marks that were stamped on the underside of their pottery look like, helping in our ability to date and identify objects. Barber took on the task and we should be thankful he did, "Many important facts pertaining to American pottery and porcelain have been allowed to pass into oblivion for the want of a chronicler."
Trenton, New Jersey, was the country's early center for pottery making. The only other city that could give Trenton a run for their money was East Liverpool, Ohio. Potteries in Trenton and East Liverpool together accounted for more than half of all pottery produced in the United States between the Civil War and 1920. Cincinnati was also the home to some very large and important potteries. In aggregate, Ohio had more potteries than any other state. Almost all pottery was made east of the Mississippi, with very few potteries out west.
Barber lists the potteries in state and city order and so do we, excerpting from his book directly. At the end of each entry we add the date company ceased doing business as well.
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Mrs. Linna Irelan, San Francisco, CA
An art pottery has been established in San Francisco by Mrs. Linna Irelan, about 1899. Her designs are modeled from nature and all the pieces are thrown on the wheel. The native clays of California are used exclusively. Mr. Alexander W. Robertson, Formerly of Chelsea, MA assists her in creating artistic shapes. The colored glazes or enamels which are used are especially meritorious. The decorations are incised and in relief. Mrs. Irelan has given this pottery the name of Roblin ware which is formed from the first syllables of Mr. Robertson's name and her Christian name. The mark is the word Roblin in conjunction with the figure of a bear, impressed in clay. In addition to this device are usually found the name of the designer and certain numbers or characters relating to the records of the establishment.
The Stockton Art Pottery, Stockton, CA
The Stockton Art Pottery incorporated a few years ago in Stockton, CA . The principal products were jardinieres and pedestals, umbrella stands and vases. The special art ware, which were christened Rekston ware, is characterized by heavy, colored glazes or enamels. The company was originally called the Stockton Terra-Cotta Co., and the work Rekston, originally spelled Reckston, was obtained by taking the works Stockton Terra-Cotta and eliminating duplicate letters.
The Van Briggle Pottery Co., Colorado Springs, CO
This pottery was established in 1901 by Artus Van Briggle, Formerly decorator at the Rookwood Pottery in Cincinnati. The founder spend three years in paris where he studied drawing and the human figure. The product of this, one of the most recent American art potteries, is characterized by the originality of treatment in the modeled ornamentation and a peculiar, soft dull glaze. The designs are modeled in relief before the ware is fired. The details of the human figures are often suggestive, as through emerging from water, the effect being most artistic. The mark, which is incised in the clay with a blunt tool, consists of a monogram, the name of the projector and the date, the latter being changed each year. Variations of this mark occur on vases of a high artistic quality. The "dead" glaze is of a fine, smooth texture, and is produced in a variety of tints. Mr. Van Briggle died in 1904.
The Denver China and Pottery Co.
The Denver China and Pottery was recently organized in Denver by Dr. W.A. Long,. Lonhuda ware is again being made and decorated by some of the old artists who were employed by the Lonhuda Co, in Zanesville. A new line of art ware, known by the name Denaura, in matte glazes of various colors, principally green, has been developed. The surface is sometimes iridescent, showing flits of rich metallic, prismatic coloring. The pieces are modeled with relief designs of native Colorado flowers, with lines and motives in art Nouveau style. This company also manufactures a new line of general ware for ordinary uses, and colored glazed wares.
The Geijsbeek Pottery Co., Golden, CO
This company began operations in 1899. From September of that year until February 1900 the marks used on white ware and vitrified colored bodies were The Geijsbeek Pottery Co., Denver, Colo., and the initials G.P.C. From February to August 1900 their mark was a wheel with spokes and the word Denver in the center. From the latter date until January 1901 the same mark, with the name Golden in the center. This was superseded at the beginning of the last named year by a similar mark on white ware, printed in green beneath the glaze. The products are made from Colorado clays.
The New Milford Pottery Co., New Milford, CT
The New Milford Pottery Co. was established as a stock company in 1886. The products were ordinary grades of white ware. On cream color goods the mark was a square with the initials of the company's name. For semi-opaque chine the eagle mark was used. A limited quantity of ware was made for their New York agents, Messrs. Land & Schafer, on which a circular mark with the firm's initials (L & S) was placed. the name of the concern was later changed to the Wannopee Pottery Co., under which title it has been known. The marks in present use are sun bursts enclosing a W, one used on Duchess ware, which is characterized by mottled glazes, and one on porcelain. The Park Land Pottery, under the same management produced a novel ware covered with a metallic glaze, closely resembling copper. The mark is the monogram of the pottery. The name Scarabronze was adopted for this ware, the mark being an Egyptian scarabaeus, either applied somewhere on the surface in relief, or impressed on the base. A few pieces were issued with paper labels containing the scarab in gold. the forms of vases are derived from the old Egyptian, and the surface of the metallic glaze is exceedingly smooth and pleasing to the touch. Mr. A.H. Noble, the head of the company, retired in 1903. Among the products of the Wannopee Pottery are some modeled semi-porcelain pitchers with a "smear" or dull glaze, somewhat resembling in appearance Parian ware. One variety is embellished with relief medallion heads of Beethoven and Mozart. Another bears medallion busts marked "Napoleon." These are white with the exception of a band of leaves in relief around the top and base, which in the first mentioned is colored brown, and in the latter a greenish lemon. The ground of these pitchers is coarsely pitted. These cheap affairs, which appeared first in 1895, are sometimes offered by dealers as rare antiques. The modeling is the work of Mr. Victor Gallimore, of Treneon, NJ.
The American Terra-Cotta Co., Chicago, IL
The American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Co. have recently placed upon the market a new product, which is known as Teco ware. It is made in plain shapes, usually with modeled or relief designs, covered with a gull of matte glaze of a peculiar grayish green tint. It is stamped with the word Teco, derived from the title of the company. The company produced pottery between 1881 and 1930.
The Monmouth Pottery Co., Monmouth, IL
The product of this factory are all kinds of stoneware. The mark represents an enormous vessel containing two men. The numbers indicate the different sizes of the ware.
The Peoria Pottery Co., Peoria, IL
The Peoria Pottery was organized in 1873. The original buildings were erected in 1859 by Messrs C. W. Fenton and D.W. Clark, who had previously been connected with the United States Pottery at Bennington, VT. Mr. Fenton was the president of the corporation. The mark first used was a circular, impressed stamp bearing the name of the company around the margin and Peoria, ILL. in the center. After making white granite and cream colored wares for about three years the works were taken over by other parties, who began the manufacture of yellow, Rockingham and stoneware. In 1867 and 1868, the mark for yellow ware was the name of the pottery impressed. the same mark was used on brown glazed (Albany slip) stoneware from 1867 to 1887. The later marks of the Peoria Pottery are as follows: On cream colored ware, from 1888 to 1890, the British Coat of arms. These marks were used temporarily, when changing from stoneware to whiteware.
On cream colored ware, from 1890 to 1899 (when this product was abandoned), the monogram of the company's name was used.
On white granite, from 1890 to the present, the British Arms again served as the mark, and during the same period the monogram on semi-porcelain.
In 1889 and 1890, the mark on cream colored. hotel ware was an arrow. P.P. Co. Hotel
The Crown Pottery Co., Evansville, IN
The Crown Pottery began operations on October 1, 1891, with six kilns and four enamel kilns. The products are white granite table and toilet wares. The marks are as follows. On ironstone china.
On Crown Porcelain. On dinner ware, the crown mark. On various patterns of dinner ware: Rex, Regina, Royal and Jewel.
On toilet ware patterns - Alma, Helen, Hobson and Rena.
On semi-porcelain. On hotel ware.
This pottery dates back to 1882 when it was established by A.M. Beck. He began the manufacture of majolica with three kilns. Recently the Crown Pottery and the Peoria Pottery have been combined as the Crown Potteries Co. The company produced works until the mid 1950s.
Newcomb Pottery, New Orleans, LA
In 1896, an art department was added to the study course at Newcomb College, New Orleans, under the the supervision of Prof. Ellsworth Woodward, and his assistant, Miss Mary G. Sheerer, who studied at the Cincinatti Art Academy. The young lady pupils of the college have made great advancement in pottery, designing and decoration, and some exceedingly artistic pieces have been produced there. The characteristics of the ware are original underglaze designs, suggested mainly by the local flora and fauna of the South. In the accompanying Plate the upper figures show the factory marks. In addition to those each piece is marked with the private design or monogram of the decorator.
The letters R, U, Q, etc. indicate the clay mixtures. The letters and numbers, A1, A2, etc. are the registration marks. Recently a new decorative treatment has been introduced, the outlining of conventionalized designs by means of a pointed instrument in the art nouveau style. The products of the Newcomb Pottery have taken such a prominent place in the art world that possessors of examples of this ware will be glad to identify the work of the various artists who have placed their marks on them.
The Grueby Faience Co., Boston, MA
the Grueby Fiance Co. was organized in June 1897, by Messrs. Greuby, Graves and Kendrick. The ware is a hard semi-porcelain body, covered with an opaque lusterless enamel, of great smoothness and a satiny finish.The forms of the pieces are derived from the ancient Egyptian, the prevailing color being a cool, cucumber-green, although recently other colors, such as a yellow, blue and purple have been introduced. The marks employed at different times, which are impressed, are shown here. The companies works are displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art. The company ceased production in 1908.
The modeled decorations, in low relief are done entirely by hand, mainly by young women artists whose initials and monograms are usually found on pieces of their work. They are as follows:
The New England Pottery, Boston, MA
A pottery was established in East Boston, MA in 1854, by Frederick Meagher, for the manufacture of common white ware. In 1876 Thomas Gray and L.W. Clark took the works, under the name of the New England Pottery Co. The first mark employed by the company was the great seal or Arms of the State of Massachusetts, which was used from about 1878 to 1883 on ironstone china or white granite. A special order of goods for a private purchaser was marked with a flying eagle. this was printed in black beneath the glaze. A lozenge-shaped device with meander bordering, enclosing the monogram of the name of the company and initials of the proprietors, was used on stone china from 1883 to 1886. Cream-colored ware has been marked in black with a similar design, having a scalloped, circular outline, from 1887 to the present time. For white granite ware the mark was a shield. This was printed in black, under the glaze, during the years 1886 to 1892, when its manufacture was discontinued. In 1886 the firm began to make a semi-porcelain ware in colored bodies, which are decorated in an artistic manner. To this product they gave the name of "Rieti" ware. This was first marked in black beneath the glaze, with a mailed hand holding a dagger. In 1888 the design was changed, and from that date until 1889 the "Rieti" mark was a shell bearing the name, also printed in black beneath the glaze. From 1889 to 1895 when the production of "Rieti" was was abandoned, the mark was a crown and shield combined, printed on the glaze in red. The present mark used on special articles and shapes, in "Paris White" ware, was adopted in 1897. Much of the ware produced at the New England Pottery in the past was of a highly artistic character/
The Chelsea Keramic Art Works, Chelsea, MA
The Chelsea Keramic Art Works were established at Chelsea, Mass., by Alexander W. Robertson in 1866. The wares which havve been produced here are mainly reproductions of antique and Oriental potteries and porcelains. Hugh C. Robertson, a son of the founder, has been the leading spirit and is still actively engaged in the work. In 1891 a company was incorporated under the names of Chelsea Pottery, U.S. About 1896 or 1897 the works were moved to Dedham, Mass., when the title changed to the Dedham Pottery. The marks used at various times are as follows: the initials of the Chelsea Keramic Art Works impressed in different art wares, from 1875 to 1889. The name of the works impressed from 1875 to 1889. The name of the works impressed from 1875 to 1880. A four-leaf clover bearing the impressed initials C.P.U.S. was introduced in 1891 and about two years later an outlined rabbit, foreshortened, was used. Still later, at the Dedham Pottery, a square stamp with the name of the pottery was impressed or printed on various art productions. Among Mr. Robertson's more important achievements are his reproductions of the Chinese Dragon's Blood glaze, crackle stoneware with blue inglaze decorations, and heavy, slow-following glazzes after the old Japanese.
The Low Art Tile Co., Chelsea, MA
Arthur Osborne was the chief modeler for the Low Art Rile Co, previous to 1893. His mark is his monogram, the letter A in a circle.
The Merrimac Ceramic Co., Newburyport, MA
The Merrimac Ceramic Co. has for its leading spirit, T.S. Nickerson, who is a member of the Society of Arts and Crafts in Boston. The company was organized in 1897 for the manufacture of cheap florists' ware and enamel tile. For a year or so terra cotta or enameled pottery have been manufactured. These wares are of decorative quality and the colored glazes are of unusual merit. The principal product at present is house and garden pottery in artistic forms. A paper label was attached to all pieces from September 1900 to August 1901. Since the latter date the makers mark has been impressed. The device is a fish (a sturgeon) which is the Indian name for Merrimac. On January 1, 1902 the name was changed to the Merrimac Pottery Co. and the most recent achievements are dull enamels of great variety.
Miss Mary Perry Chase, Detroit, MI
An art pottery, original in conception and treatment, has been perfected by Miss Mary Chase Perry. This pottery, which has been called Pewabic ware, after the northern river of that name, is of hard, white body covered with heavy opaque enamels of various colors, coming from the kiln with a natural matte finish which is most pleasing to sight and tough. The mark, which is impressed in the ware, consists of the name PEWABIC, beneath a row of leaves. On some of the pieces also occur the letters M.C.P.
The Edwin Bennett Pottery Co., Baltimore, MD
James Bennett erected a pottery for the manufacture of yellow and Rockingham ware in East Liverpool, OH, in 1839. This was the pioneer pottery of what is now the greatest pottery-producing section in the United States. In 1844, Mr. Bennett, with his three brothers, moved the plant to Birmingham, Pittsburgh, PA. The mark used at this time was the name of the firm Bennett Bros. In 1846, Edwin Bennett withdrew from the firm and went to Baltimore, where he erected a small pottery. Two years later he was joined by his brother William. The mark used at this period consisted of the firm name and address, Canton Avenue. The wares produced were stoneware of various colors, Egyptian black ware and a verity of "majolica" that was introduced about 1850. This mark was discontinued about 1856, when William Bennett withdrew.
Charles Coxon began modeling for this firm in 1850, and many of their pitcher form, which were made in brown or Rickingham glaze, were designed and modeled by him. Among these were the Wild Boar pitcher, modeled in 1851; the Rebekah at the Well teapot, in 1852, which, however, was adapted from an earlier model produced by S. Alcock & Co., of Burslem, Staffordshire, the original being a Parian jug with blue ground and raised figure of Rebekah in white; the Hunting jug, with relief figures of hunters on horseback, and stags and hounds on the reverse side; the Stock pitcher, in 1853; a Game jug, Grape-Vine coffee pot. Forrester milk pitcher, Oak Stump vase, and a large water or coffee urn with dolphin handles and relief grape-vine decorations. Afterwards Mr. Coxon went to Trenton to establish a pottery there, Coxon & Co.
For about twenty years no other marks appear to have been employed. In 1875 the Phoenix mark was used on white granite ware. In 1880, a seven-pointed star, enclosing the initials of the manufacturer, was adopted for stone china. In 1884, the mark for cream-colored ware was a globe in a circle, surrounded by the word "Warranted." In 1884 and 1885, copyright and patent marks were used on Parian plaques, with relief designs of heads of cattle and other specialties, modeled by Mr. James Priestman. These were among the best things of the kind that have been produced down to that time, and were modeled from life.
In 1886, the owl mark was used on "Ivory" chamber sets and jugs. In the same year the mark for stone china consisted of a design of two deer supporting a shield. An additional mark for stone china or white granite ware was used to some extent in 1886. This was a square enclosing a circle inscribed "Warranted Stone China." In 1890, when the Edwin Bennett Pottery Co. was organized, the mark adopted was a globe, pierced through the United States by a sword, on the guard of which the initials of the company appear. The motto which forms parts of the mark is "Bona Fama est Melior Zona Aurea." This continues to be used on all semi-porcelain ware. Several variations are found on special wares. In 1892, the Semi-Granite stamp was placed on cream-colored ware. In 1896, the Coronet stamp was employed as a mark on an English printed body. In 1894 the company began the manufacture of their "Brubensul" ware, a highly glazed variety of "majolica." In 1893, the production of slip-painted ware was commenced, which was called "Albion" ware, because slip decorating had been done in England at an early period. The mark consisted of the name of the company and of the ware and the date of production. The foremost decorator of the Albion ware was Miss Kate de Witt Berg. Her monogram appears on pieces painted by her. Miss Annie Haslam Brinton was another decorator. Her mark was a monogram of her initials. IN 1896, the diamond mark was used on a hard grade of china, which was only produced for a short while. From 1897 to the present time a modification of the earlier coronet stamp has been in use for cream-colored ware. The company went bankrupt in 1936.
The Maryland Pottery Co., Baltimore, MD (D.F. Haynes & Co.)
The Maryland Queensware Factory was erected in 1879 by Messrs. Hamill & Bullock. They were succeeded in 1880 by Hamill, Brown & Co. The Maryland Pottery Co. was incorporated in 1888, since which date the plant has been considerably altered and enlarged. Following are the marks of the different owners of the works: On white granite china made for Messrs. D.F. Haynes & Co of Baltimore, their selling agents and wholesale dealers in crockery, glass, etc, a circular garter with eagle in center, used from 1879 to 1881.
During the same period an elliptical mark with crown in center was used on cream colored ware furnished to the same firm. On a general line of white granite ware from about 1881 to 1883, a circular eagle mark was used. From 1880 to 1892 the crown mark was placed on their cream colored ware. The "Cremorne" mark was used on "Opaque Porcelain" from about 1881 to 1885. On white granite or ironstone china, between 1883 and 1891, the mark was the great Seal of the State of Maryland. On the same ware, from 1887 to 1890, another mark was "Stone China Warranted."
The word "Etruscan" was printed in black and white on granite toilet sets from 1885 to 1887. It was not known that a similar mark was being impressed on "Etruscan Majolica" at the Phoenixville (PA) Pottery about the same time. The company made pottery until 1914.
George E. Ohr Pottery, Biloxi, MS
The pottery of George E. Ohr, at Biloxi, MS is one of the most interesting in the United States. In a single small kiln, without assistance in the manifold labors incident to the preparation of the clay, the throwing of the pieces, the glazing and firing. Mr. Ohr has developed an original ware which has attracted the attention of the art world. His ware is made of the ordinary clay found in the vicinity, and is burned at a low temperature. The extreme thinness of the pieces and the great variety of forms are their special characteristics. While in a plastic state they are twisted, crushed, folded, dented and crinkled into grotesque and occasionally artistic shapes, but the principal beauty of the ware consists in the richness of the glazes, which are wonderfully varied, the reds, greens and metallic luster effects being particularly good. Being made for the most part entirely by hand, no two pieces are precisely alike. They range in size from the tiny vase or puzzle mug to pieces as tall as a man. Mr. Ohr has been potting for nearly twenty years, and all of his methods and processes are entirely original. The marks found on the ware are the name of the potter and the town, scratched in the paste or stamped in type.G.E. Ohr, Biloxi. He stopped making pottery in 1909.
Chesapeake Pottery, Baltimore, MD
The Chesapeake Pottery was established in Baltimore in 1880 or 1881 by John Tunstall, Henry Broughman and Isaac Broughman, English workmen, who had been employed for some time at other potteries in this country. They made yellow baking ware and Rockingham utensils. In May, 1881, the plant was purchased by Messrs. D.F. Haynes & Co. In 1887, the Chesapeake pottery Co. was organized, continuing until January 1, 1890, when the style became Haynes, Bennett & Co. On January 1, 1895 the property was conveyed to D.F. Haynes & Son. The marks are as follows: A shield on Ivory body from about 1882 to 1884. A triangular device on "Avalon" faience during the same period. A double crescent on "Clifton" ware with decorations and relief work, about the same time. An ellipse on semi-porcelain during the same period. From about 1887 to 1890, or perhaps a little later, three intertwining circles were used, to indicate the shapes of dinner services, such as "Arundel," and the style of decorations, as "Home Flowers," "Poppy," "Glen Rose," "Coreopsis," etc. The letters C.C.P stood for Chesapeake Pottery and H.B.H. for Haynes and Bennett. These marks were printed on the glaze in the same colors as the underglaze decorations. The "Avalon" mark was employed on toilet, and probably other wares from 1887 to 1890. In 1900 the Haynes mark was adopted and is used in the present time on nearly all wares of this pottery. Real Ivory, Balt.
Hampshire Pottery, Keene, NH
Messrs. J.S. Taft & Co. operate the Hampshier Pottery. It was started in 1871 for the manufacture of ordinary wares, and, somewhat later, "majolica" was made. For the past few years art specialities in white bodies have been the principal production, mainly souvenir pieces for summer resorts with printed designs, usually in black. The three marks used on this class of ware, generally printed in red, are here shown.
L. B. Beerbower & Co, Elizabeth, NJ
Merrss. L.B. Beerbower & Co. have operated the old pottery at Elizabeth NJ for a number of years. These works were established about 1816 for the manufacture of stoneware. Later it was run by a Mr. Pruden, who made yellow and Rockingham wares. The products of the present company are ironstone china, semi-granite, cream-colored and print-decorated wares. Warranted Stone China.
The American Porcelain Manufacturing Co., Gloucester, NJ
This company produced soft porcelain from 1854 to 1857. Their mark consisted of the initials of the company impressed in the paste (A.P.M. Co.). Marked pieces that are known are embellished with raised floral designs in white. A cream pitcher in the Pennsylvania Museum is decorated with roses, evidently produced in a mold. The pattern has been copied from an English design, which occurs in Parianware. Although the company was in business a short period of time, their work was of a high quality; a pitcher of the company is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Chas. Wingender & Bro., Haddonfield, NJ
Charles Wingender & Bro. are among the few potters in the United States who continue to produce the old-fashioned German gray stoneware with cobalt blue decorations and salt glaze. Their beer steins, jardinieres, pedestals, water coolers and toby jugs are made after the old German forms, and compare favorably both in decoration and in mechanical execution with the imported ware of a similar nature. This pottery has been operated for about eight years by the Wingender brothers, who came to this country from Germany, where they learned the business. Their ware is sometimes, but not always, stamped with the initials of the firm (C.W. & Bro.). The illustration shows a quartette of stoneware mugs with blue foliated decorations and the notation and the words of a four-part college song. On the reverse side is the name of the owner, in musical characters. The company operated from 1894-1910. Their wares were of such a high quality that they are in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
The Jersey City Pottery, Jersey City, NJ
This pottery was operated by D. & J. Henderson about 1828, and the mark was used by them was a circle enclosing the firm name and "Jersey City." This was impressed on brown glazed ware, such as toby jugs and hunting pitchers. Prof. John M. Clarke, of Albany, NY owns a yellow ware pitcher, with relief decoration of oak leaves and acorns. An unmarked example may be seen in the Pennsylvania Museum. David Henderson organised the American pottery Manufacturing Company in 1833. Several marks were in use at this time and during the next seven or eight years. About 1840 the English method of transfer printing was introduced for the first time in America. the flag mark, bearing the title of the company (Am. Pottery), was printed under the glaze in black. It is found on pitchers decorated with printed busts of General William Henry Harrison, the Log Cabin and American Eagle. About the same time a large elliptical mark, upwards of two inches in width, was printed beneath the glaze, in light blue, and possibly other colors. It is found on plates decorated with a printed pattern, known as the CANOVA design, which was copies from a transfer print issued by John Ridgway, of Hanley, England. The name of the corporation was changed to the American Pottery Co. about 1840. several different marks of this period are known. One consists of the name arranged in straight lines and impressed by means of type. this mark was used on yellow ware for kitchen and table ware in 1842. From 1840 to 1845 another impressed mark, consisting of the words, "American Pottery Co.," arranged in a circle and "Jersey City" in a straight line beneath, was in use. One of the original white clay stamps of this variety is in the Pennsylvania Museum collection. The same words, with the addition of the initials of the State (NJ) were also enclosed in a circular stamp and impressed on Rockingham pitchers and jugs. Also found on cream-ware tea services, with relief ornamentation.
Messrs. Rouse & Turner took the Jersey City Pottery soon after 1850. They made white ware, on which they placed the English mark, the lion and unicorn, with the initials of the firm, R. & T. beneath. This was probably the first American pottery to stamp its wares with a foreign mark. It was the beginning of a practice which afterward became common among American manufacturers and has survived until the present time, for, until a few years ago, foreign wares were preferred to domestic. About 1880 the firm began to use a new mark on their ivory ware for decorators. This mark consisted of the letters I.V.W. It was evidently prepared hurriedly, as the middle letter should have been a W, but since the error had appeared on the ware, it was never corrected. In the autumn of 1892, the old buildings, which ad stood for nearly three-quarters of a century, were town down. Several works of the Jersey City Pottery are on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
William Young & Sons, Trenton NJ
In 1853, William Young, in connection with his son, William Young, Jr. commended the manufacture of earthenware in Trenton for four years they made hardware porcelain, some china vases, pitchers of various kinds and a few dishes. In 1857 a new pottery was started under the name Excelsior Pottery Works, which was operated by William and Sons. The marks used were, in 1858, an eagle; from 1858 to 1879, the English Arms. Their mark has WYS at the bottom.
The Willets Manufacturing Company, Trenton, NJ
In 1879 the Willets Mfg. Co. came into possession of the works formerly operated by William Young and Sons. The marks used by the Willets Mfg. Co. are as follows: On stone china, the Arms of Great Britain. In 1884 a monogram was adopted, composted of the firm name, which was either impressed on white granite ware or applied in color. On their semi-porcelain they have used an octagonal mark, and on table and toilet ware printed pattern marks have been used such as Arno, Duchess, Forget-me-not, Adelaide, Saratoga, etc. On decorated Belleek china they have used two marks, formed of a serpent twisted to represent thee letter W, one having the word Belleek above. These are printed on the glaze in red, brown or black. The eight makers marks from Willets are below, including W.M. Co. The Company closed in 1908. A Willets pitcher is on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The City Pottery, Trenton, NJ
City Pottery Trenton was the first place to manufacture white granite and cream-colored ware exclusively. They began in 1859. In 1865 the style became Yates & Titus. They were succeed in 1871 by Yates, Bennett & Allan. In the latter year the English mark was used in connection with their initials, Y.B.A. In 1875, when the the City Pottery Company was incorporated the letters C.P. Co., was employed. In 1876 a new mark was introduced, a shield, bearing the same letters.
Greenwood Pottery, Trenton, NJ
Messrs. Stephens, Tams & Co. established a pottery in Trenton in 1861. In 1868 they organized the Greenwood Pottery Co. From the latter date until 1875 the Arms of the State of New Jersey were used as a mark for ironstone china or white granite. In the last-named year they added the legend which appears on the subjoined mark. The patent was a scalloped dish which was produced at the time. The initials of the company were stamped in the body of the first table porcelain made at this factory about the same period. In 1886 the name "Greenwood China" was impressed in the body of table and toilet wares. From 1883 to 1886 the mark used on art wares was suggested by the Royal Worcester mark.The Greenwood Pottery operated until 1931. Their seven various marks are below:
The East Trenton Pottery Company, Trenton, NJ
In 1888 this company was producing china or white granite wear bearing printed portraits of the Presidential candidates. The mark then used consisted of the Arms of the Sate of New Jersey. Later, the mark, "Opaque China, E.T.P. Co." was impressed in the paste. On white granite ware the British lion and unicorn mark was also employed. A variation of this device, with the lion and unicorn standing, was also in use. These appeared on toilet and table services, printed in black beneath the glaze. Closed in 1906.
Millington, Astbury & Poulson, Trenton, NJ
Richard Millington and John Astbury, under the style of Millington & Astbury, established a pottery in Carroll Street in 1853. In 1859, the firm name became Millington, Astruby & Poulson. They were making white ware goods in 1861. A large pitcher, with relief designs, illustrating the shooting of Col. E.E. Ellsworth, at Alexandria, VA, at the breaking out of the Civil War, bears their impressed mark, an ellipse with the initials of the firm name. This pitcher occurs both in white and brilliant coloring. The pitcher is today part of the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The abbreviation M.A.P. Trenton is used.
Thomas Maddock & Sons, Trenton, NJ
The marks used by Thomas Maddock & Sons are : A circular ribbon containing the initials of the firm name and the date 1859, surmounted by a crown, which was used on dinner ware an an anchor for sanitary earthenware. TM&S. Thomas Maddock's Sons survivng factory is on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.
The Maddock Pottery Co, Trenton, NJ
The company dates from the year 1893, operating what is known as the Lamberton Works. Thomas Maddock & Sons, Moses Collear, C.A. May and Thomas P. Donoher are the stockholders. They manufacture fine grades of semi-porcelain in table and toilet wares. The factory mark bears the name of the works. The mark for decorated china is a crown, while that for undecorated ware is the word CHINA, with the initials M (Maddock) and L (Lamberton) above and below. The pottery closed in 1923.
John Maddock & Sons, Trenton, NJ
John Maddock & Sons of the Coalport Works, commenced the manufacture of earthenware of every description in 1894. Mr. John Maddock is a son of Mr. Thomas Maddock of Maddock & Sons, having associated with him his own sons. Their marks are, for "Coalport" china, a four-leaf clover, which occurs in two varieties, below. The company closed in 1925.
The Glasgow Pottery, Trenton, NJ (John Moses & Sons, Co.)
John Moses founded the Glasgow Pottery in 1863. The principal products have been white granite and cream colored wares, thin hotel and steamboat china. Just previous to the Centennial large quantities of cups and saucers were made at this factory for the Centennial Tea Parties which were held in various parts of the country. The John Hancock cups and saucers were exceedingly popular, and many of them are preserved in collections today. One of the earliest marks of the Glasgow Pottery was the name printed in black on white granite ware. A modification to this has recently been in use by the John Moses & Sons Co., by which title the present firm is known. Another mark used in 1876 was the American eagle and shield on white granite. A similar mark was used on semi-porcelain in 1878. In 1880 a wreath enclosing the date was the mark for the same ware. In 1882, white granite was marked "Glasgow China," in a circle. In 1884 the monogram of John Moses surrounded by the name of the ware, was printed on white granite in black. On the same grade of ware, in 1893, a diamond-shaped mark was printed. The pottery closed in 1906.
The Arms of Great Britain was used by John Moses & Co. on ironstone china, or white granite. A circular mark was used on opaque porcelain. An additional mark used by John Moses, on white granite, is shown here:
The marks of John Moses & Sons Co. are several varieties of the British Coat of Arms for white granite, used from about 1895. J.M. & Co.
In 1899 the Glasgow Pottery made, by order of the United States Government, crockery for the use of the National home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, on which was required to be printed the seal of the institution. The date on the seal, March 3, 1865, is the date of the approval of the act of Congress establishing the Home. The same firm manufactured ware for the Quartermaster's Department, which was stamped Q.M.D. They were also contracting potters for furnishing crockery for the United States Marine Corps, on which was stamped the letters U.S.M.C.
Special marks were also used for other branches of the Government service, such as the Navy and Medical Board. Other marks were placed on special orders of dealers in various parts of the country, of which the following are a few:
Ott & Brewer, Trenton, NJ
The Etruria Pottery Dates back to 1863, in which year it was built by Messrs. Bloor, Ott & Booth. John Hart Brewer entered the firm in 1865, and the style soon after became Ott & Brewer. The marks for white granite were variations of the British Coat of Arms. An Ott & Brewer vase is pat of the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Opaque china table ware were marked with a Maltese Cross surrounded by a ribbon, and occasionally with a circular rising sun device containing the firm name.
A common mark on table ware consisted of the initials of the firm over the word, "China." The monogram of the firm in a circle was placed on a fine grade of China. Semi-porcelain ware was marked with a globe, and occasionally with a "Royal Crown."
This firm was the first to commence the manufacture of Belleek ware in this country. In 1882 work workmen from the Irish Belleck works were brought over for this purpose, and the manufacture of thin egg-shell china with lustre glazes was established in Trenton. Several marks were used on Etruria Belleek, among which are two varieties of the crown and the sword, and two of the crescent, designs, which were printed over the glaze in red and brown. Occasionally, the same ware was marked "Manufactured by Ott & Brewer, Trenton, N.J., U.S.A.," and again with the firm name in a circle. The initials of the firm were also used on fine Belleek ware about 1885. This firm was succeeded by the Cook Pottery Co.
The Cook Pottery Company, Trenton, NJ
This company was organized in the early part of 1894, succeeding to the business of Messrs. Ott & Brewer. Their mark for cream colored. ware was the British Lion and unicorn, with shield bearing the monogram of the Cook Pottery Co. with the name Mellor & Co. below. This mark was adopted for the purpose of avoiding any confusion between the products of this factory and the old Crescent Pottery, whose goods were then stamped "Cook & Hancock." A similar mark was used on white granite ware. On porcelain dinner ware two marks were used, one composed of three feathers, the other a circle enclosing the combined names of Etruria and Mellor & Co. A four-leaf clover distinguished their "Juno" shape in semi-vitreous china. On Belleck ware the three feather mark was also used to some extent. the Delft ware of the Cook Pottery Co. is the best imitation of the old Dutch faience which has been produced in this country. While the glaze is not stanniferous, it is an excellent simulation of the opaque enamel of Holland, and the tone of the blue color used in the decorations is a close approach to the genuine Delft. The mark is an adaptation of an old Holland mark. Their eight marks are below. The company closed during the Great Depression in 1929. One of its pitchers is the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Coxon & Co., Trenton, NJ
The firm of Coxon & Co. was established in 1863, in Trenton by Charles Coxon and J.F. Thompson. Their products were cream-colored ware and white granite. The mark was a badge with the American eagle in the center and the name of the firm in a ribbon beneath, printed in black under the glaze. About 1884 the works were sold to Alpaugh & Magowan, who gave them the name of the Empire Pottery.
The Trenton Pottery Company
This company was incorporate in New Jersey in 1865. One of the marks used, on white granite, consisted of the initials of the company printed in black. In 1870 the style was changed to Taylor, Goodwin & Co.T.P. Co. China.
The Mercer Pottery Co., Trenton, NJ
The Mercer Pottery Company was organized in 1868. The double shield mark, formerly used by this company, was the same as that employed by the firms of Carr & Clark and Burgess & Campbell. Other marks are a globe impressed on white granite ware. The name of the pottery impressed. The initials of the pottery on ironstone china or white granite. A shield on semi-vitreous china, with printed decorations. Closed in 1946.
The monogram of the Company. The following occur on various patterns of table and toilet services:
The New Jersey Pottery Co., Trenton, NJ
The New Jersey Pottery Co. was organized in 1869, at Trenton and in 1883 the name changed to the Union Pottery Co. The products were cream-colored and white granite wares. During the Presidential campaign of 1880 this company issued a series of plates with overglaze printed portraits of the candidates. The mark was printed in blabeneath the glaze. Closed in 1936.
International Pottery Co., Trenton, NJ
Established in 1860. The names of Burgess & Campbell, successors to the original owners were substituted. On certain patterns of underglaze ware a circular stamp was impress in semi-porcelain. Another mark ("International China") was used on the same grade of ware. On semi-porcelain table ware with blue decorations beneath the glaze, the "Royal Blue" marks were printed in the same color.
A similar mark was used on toilet and dinner ware of the "Balmoral" pattern. Pattern marks were used on toilet and table ware such as "Albany," "Japonica," "Lotus" and "Diamond."
After the withdrawal of Mr. Campbell from the company, the style became Burgess & Co. The mark used on "Royal China" in 1903 is a crown in a circle. On "Wilton" china, of the same pattern as the "Royal Blue," decorated in "Still blue" and gray underglaze. Two additional marks were sometimes placed on "Royal Blue" ware.
On the "Rugby" pattern, made in "Flint china," a grade of ware between white granite and porcelain, two marks were printed in brown. Late marks of the International Pottery Co. used on semi-vitreous porcelain represent a Maltese cross.
The American Crockery Company, Trenton, NJ
In 1870 the American Crockery Company was manufacturing bisque and white granite ware, in which year an exhibit was mad at the Centennial Exposition. The mark used on white granite was the English Lion and Unicorn, with the initials of the company beneath. This mark, printed in black, occurs on a small milk jug, decorated with a printed view of Independence Hall in Philadelphia. On a water jug, with transfer prints of Horticultural Hall and the Agricultural Building of the Centennial produced at the same period, is found the eagle and monogram mark. A.C.Co. The company closed in 1887
Burroughs & Mountford Co, Trenton, NJ
The company began business in 1870, in the Eagle Pottery. They produced a large line of table and toilet wares, and a number of characteristics styles of art wares, in bold ornamentation and harmonious coloring. Some of their larger vases, painted by a Japanese artist in their employ, were among the finest pieces of their kind ever produced in this country. This firm discontinued business several years ago (this was written in 1907). B. & M. Co. or B & M. China.
The globe mark was used on decorated wares, in “cretonne” patterns. The “Honiton” mark appeared on a tea service with printed decorations. The crown mark and the initials of the firm were used on various grades of white granite and cream colored wares with printed decorations. The “Extra Quality” mark was impressed in white granite table ware. It occurs on a plate bearing the decorative mark of the Harker Pottery Co., of East Liverpool, Ohio. the form closed in 1901.
The Prospect Hill Pottery, Trenton, NJ
Established in 1880 the firm manufactured decorated semi-porcelain and white granite dinner and toilet wares until 1894. The earliest mark was the Arm of Great Britain. Later they used the initials of the firm name, Dale & Davis (D & D). The mark for opaque porcelain was a draped shield bearing the figure of an eagle.Prospect Hill remained upon until 1903.
The Anchor Pottery, Trenton, NJ
This pottery was established by James E. Norris, about 1894. The earlier marks were a modification of the British Arms and an anchor enclosed in a circle. Since 1898, the three marks below were used, the last two bearing the names of patterns or shapes. Anchor Pottery closed in 1926.
The later marks of this pottery, used on semi-porcelain ware, are shown below.
The Delaware Pottery, Trenton, NJ
Messrs. Oliphant & Co. operated the Delaware Pottery between 1884 and 1895. The two marks shown here were printed in black, or impressed on cups, druggists’ mortars, etc. A limited amount of Belleck porcelain was also made at one time by this firm. The firm remained open until 1892.
The Crescent Pottery, Trenton, NJ
This company was organized in 1881 by Charles H. Cook and W.S. Hancock, for the manufacture of sanitary earthenware, white granite and cream colored wares. In 1885 their marks were of the Coat of Arms of the State of New Jersey, and a lion’s head in a circular garter, on white dinner ware. About 1890 the lion mark, printed in black and white granite, or “Paris White” ware, were also in use. The company survived until 1892.
In 1890 the “Dainty” pattern mark was used. In 1896, the “Melloria” pattern was issued.
From 1896 to 1898 the “Melloria” and “Dainty” marks were placed on semi-granite dinner ware.
In the latter year the “Dainty” and “Severn” marks were used. From 1899 to 1902 the globe, supported by a lion and unicorn, formed one of the factories marks for semi-granite dinner ware. The “Utopia” mark was place on underglaze decorated dinner ware from 1900 to 1902.
The same mark was used in 1901 on the “Alpha” pattern in underglazed dinner and tea service (see also Trenton Potteries).
Empire Pottery, Trenton, NJ
This pottery was established by Messrs. Coxon & Thompson in 1863. About 1884 it passed into the hands of Messrs. Alpaugh & Magowan, who products were thin porcelain, dinner, tea, and toilet wares, and decorated wares, principally in white granite body. They also made sanitary and plumbers’ earthenware. One of the earliest marks used by the latter firm was the British Coat of Arms, which was placed on all their general ware.
About 1892 a wreath enclosing the monograph T.P. Co. was used (see also Trenton Potteries)..
The Enterprise Pottery Co, Trenton, NJ
The Enterprise Pottery was started previous to 1880, for the manufacture of sanitary ware. The mark in use from the beginning until 1892 was the name of the company. See also the Trenton Potteries Company below.
The Trenton Potteries Company, Trenton, NJ
In 1892, the Trenton Potteries Co. was organized by the consolidation of five sanitary ware establishments –The Crescent, The Delaware, The Empire, The Enterprise and the Equitable. Later the Ideal Pottery was erected. The mark used by the consolidated company was a star. The numeral in the star indicates the plant where the ware was produced, as 1. Crescent; 2. Delaware; 3. Empire; 4. Enterprise; 5. Equitable; 6. Ideal. An exhibit was sent to the Paris Exposition in 1900, and the company was awarded two gold medals.
The Crescent Pottery, operated by Trenton Potteries, in 1896 used on Hotel china a similar mark with the name of the consolidated firm in full. In 1891, the initials only were used on vitreous china dinner ware, both thick and thin, produced at the Crescent plant. T.P. Co. The company survived until 1941.
The Bellmark Pottery Co, Trenton, NJ
The Ballmark Pottery Co., was formed in 1893. The products are plumbers' and druggists' earthenware. The mark used on these wares is a bell with the word "Vitreous China." The company made its wares through 1911.
The Fell & Thropp Co., Trenton, NJ
The Fell & Thropp Co. operated the old Taylor and Speeler pottery, known as the Trenton Pottery. Iw as until a few years ago owned by Samuel E. Thropp and J. Hart Brewer, the products being C. C. and white granite wares. The marks are the Arms of the State of New Jersey. On white granite ware, the British Arms. A tiger's head. F. & T. Co. The firm was in existence from c1889 through 1892.
The Trenton Pottery Works, Trenton, NJ
The marks of the Trenton pottery works are, for semi-granite and white granite, the Arms of the State of New Jersey with the words "Royal Semi-Granite". For opaque porcelain a shield with crossed swords and drapery. the company produced pottery between 1890 and 1935.
The Keystone Pottery Co., Trenton, NJ
The Keystone pottery manufactured vitreous china sanitary ware and specialties with a keystone enclosed in a wreath.
The Star Porcelain Co., Trenton, NJ
Manufactures electrical specialties in porcelain, employing the mark shown here. About half their product is not marked. The company went of out business in 2002.
The Ceramic Art Company, Trenton, NJ
The company came into existence in 1889, with Jonathan Coxon, Sr., president and Walter D. Lenox, secretary and treasurer. Their products have always been fire art wares in Belleek and other bodies, either decorated artistically by the best painters or produced in the white state for amateur and professional decorators. The marks which have been used by this company at different times, which are transferred to the ware from copper plates are a follows: On undecorated pieces, the initials of the Company and a painter's palette, printed in purple and other colors. On undecorated ware called "Indian China," previous to 1895, an Indian's head. On special decorative work for the trade, a wreath enclosing the full name of the Company. A special mark, on ware for decorators, used in 1897. On decorated ware, a wreath enclosing the Company's initials. The firm made pottery until 1906, several of its works are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The Trenton China Co., Trenton, NJ
The company started in 1899. One of their special productions was a fine grade of vitrified china, white and decorated. The pottery closed in 1891.
The American Art China Works, Trenton, NJ
Owned by Messrs. Rittenhouse and Evans, the company was established in 1891. Their specialty was a thin art ware called American China, plain white and decorated. The Works closed in 1894. One of their wares is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Columbian Art Pottery, Trenton, NJ
During the year of the World's Columbia Exposition in Chicago (1893) Messre. Morris & Willmore established the Colombian Art Pottery, at Trenton, for the manufacture of table and toilet china an art wares in Belleek body. The shield mark is printed on Belleek porcelain. The name of the company appears on other wares. On some of their specialties, such as toby jugs in Belleek body and also in opaque china, a miniature copy of the old Liberty Bell and other souvenir pieces, the names of customers are also occasionally printed. Produced their works from 1892-1906. A work produced by the Columbian Art Pottery is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
C. L. & H.A. Poillon, Woodbridge, NJ
C. L. & H.A. Poillon have recently established an art pottery at Woodbridge, NJ. They manufacture earthenware, decorated with majolica colors; also a fine gold lustre, orange, lustre and some mat glazes. They have also produced some colored bodies. One of their specialties is garden pottery, with bold carvings in relief. The mark is the monogram of Clara L. Poillon. This is also used without the circle.
Paul Cushman, Albany, NY
About the beginning of the nineteenth century Paul Cushman began the manufacture of salt glazed stoneware, and numerous examples of his work have survived which bear the year 1809. These pieces are principally large jars and crocks, of various shapes. In many instances the name of the maker is incised on the side, instead of in the bottom, and occasionally other inscriptions are found.
The Charles Graham Chemical Pottery Works, Brooklyn, NY
The Charles Graham Chemical Pottery Works have produced some artistic varieties of stoneware, the work of Mr. Cha C. Benham, who has been experimenting and coloring designs in this body for twenty-five years. The mark on beer mugs and other small pieces is impressed. The Pottery Works produced its wares from 1870 to about 1913.
The Middle Lane Pottery, East Hampton, NY
The Middle Lane Pottery, erected at East Hampton, Long Island, was established by Mr. T.A. Brouwer, Jr., in 1901, where he turned out some of the most beautiful metallic lustre effects thus far produced in this country. The mark consists of the outlines of the jaw bones of a whale, with the letter M, the initial of the name of the pottery, in the center. The design was suggested by the arched entrance to the ground which was formed by the jaw-bones of a colossal whale that was washed ashore at this point some years ago. The products and peculiar glaze effect of the Middle Lane Pottery are what the inventor calls "Fire Painting," "Indescent Fire Work," "Gold Leaf Underglaze," "Sea Grass," and "Flame," produced by various treatments, through the action of the flame. Recently Mr. Brouwer has moved his pottery to West Hampton, where he has erected a new and exceedingly novel building, in the form of a miniature castle. The name has been changed to the Brouwer Pottery. Pieces at the West Hampton pottery bear the signature of the maker. Pottery was produced until around 1925.
The Chittenango Pottery Co., Chittenango, NY
Operations were commenced by this company in 1897. The products are decorated and undecorated china. The company receive the contract for furnishing souvenir china for the Buffalo Exhibition. The marks are C.P. Co. China. It operated until around 1930.
The American Art Ceramic Co, Corona, NY
The American Art Pottery Co. was started recently at Corona, Long Island for the manufacture of artistic terra-cotta and pottery. In the latter part of 1901 the company was incorporated under the name of the American Art Ceramic Co The word "Ungaren" in the mark is the German for Hungary. A.A.P. Co. Ungaren
East Morrisania China Works, New York
These works were tarted by Mr. D. Robitzek on 150th Street, for the production of porcelain door knobs and hardware trimmings. The present products are white granite, cream-colored and decorated wares. The mark is "Paris White D.R."
The Faience Manufacturing Co., Greenpoint, NY
Established in 1880, where during the next ten years or so, some of the most artistic wares, in white faience and hard porcelain bodies that have ever been produced in this country were made. The shapes were original and handsome, and the decorations were painted by the best artists. An incised mark, composited of the initials of the company (FMG), was used on some of the earlier products, such as "majolica" and so-termed "barbotine" wares. On changing from coarse faience to finer grades of goods the name of the company seemed inappropriate, and so it was proposed to adopt the name "Royal Crown" ware for their improved china bodies, to cater to the public taste, which, at the time, demanded "Royal" wares. This mark was, however, used but a short time and on but a few lots of ware. It was printed beneath the glaze. The mark used on decorated faience, between 1886 and 1892, was the monogram of the company, which was penciled in black, green, etc. above the glaze. Other marks which appear on pieces are numbers which relate to the shape and decorations. The factory closed in 1892.
Charles Cartlidge & Co., Greenpoint, NY
A factory was established by Charles Cartlidge at Greenpoint, L.I. in 1848, and remained in operation until 1856. The bulk of the product of these works was bone porcelain, the composition generally used being five parts of clay (china and blue), two parts of feldspar and four part of bone. The best china painters were employed in decorating the ware. It is not know that any factory marks were used, at least none have been found on those pieces that have been fully identified.
The Union Porcelain Works, Greenpoint, NY
The company was established by some German potters previous to the breaking out of the civil War. They were soon after purchased by Thomas C. Smith. This is one of the few American potteries which have engaged in the manufacture of hard porcelain. In 1876 they began using a mark --an eagle's head with letter S in beak. This was impressed in hard porcelain table ware. In 1877 the same device was printed in green beneath the glaze. Since that date the mark has been used in conjunction with the initials U.P.W. In some instances the same device has been applied as a raised tablet on large pieces and also on small relief portrait medallions. Since 1870 a decorating-shop mark has been used on overglaze painted pieces. It is usually printed in red above the glaze and sometimes the date of manufacture placed below. Later this mark was modified by the omission of the word Greenpoint. In August 1891, a semi-circular decorating mark was adopted, which has been used until the present time. The firm made pottery until around 1922.
Volkmar Pottery, Greenpoint, NY
Charles Volkmar began making vases and tiles with underglaze decorations about 1879, and the mark used from that date until 1888 was his monogram. In 1895 Mr. Volkmar organized the Volkmar Keramic Co, in Brooklyn, NY for the manufacture of Volkmar tiles. He produced a series of plaques with underglaze blue designs of historical buildings and American portraits. The mark which he employed was the name "Volkmar" in raised letters in an impressed parallelogram. Later in the same year he formed a partnership with Miss Kate Cory, and moved the works to Corona, NY, continuing the manufacture of these plaques. The decorations were painted in blue beneath the glaze, principally by Miss Cory, a competent artist. Among the best examples of her work are a plaque with a portrait of Alexander Hamilton, a William Penn loving cup and a series of plates showing the different headquarters of General Washington. The mark at that time was the firm name impressed (C.V.). Since 1896 his was has been principally in plain colored glazes, and the mark used is the initial of his last name, either in relief or incised in the green clay. In 1903, Charles Volkmar & Son erected a pottery in Metuchen, NJ, where they are now manufacturing a line of art ware, principally in matte enamels on a semi-stone body. The latter mark is yet used, being scratched with a point in the wet clay.
New York City Pottery, New York, NY
Messrs. Morrison & Carr established a pottery in New York City in 1853. The accompanying mark, impressed, is found on some small sauce plates decorated with a magenta margin and gold lines, made in 1860. The ware is white granite of superior quality for that period. This partnership was dissolved in 1871. The first mark used by Mr. Carr alone was the British lion and unicorn, which his initials between. In the last-named year a special stamp was used on sanitary ware and interior car fittings made for the firm of James L. Howard & Co., of Hartford, CT. In 1879, Mr. Carr bought the old Speeler Pottery at Trenton and took into partnership Edward Clark of Burslem, England under the name of Lincoln Pottery Co. They began to manufacture cream-colored and white granite wares and used a mark composed of the American and British Shields. Mr. Carr retired from the Trenton establishment after a few months, but continued to use the same mark on cream-colored ware at the New York City Pottery (see International Pottery, Trenton).
Other marks were used at various times until the closing of the works in 1888. On stone china the device was an eagle over the name of the manufacturer and the pottery. On semi-china the mark was a spread-eagle, with the letters J.C. at either side. The device adopted for stone porcelain was the name of the ware and the maker's initials. Another mark employed was composed of clasped hands between the letters J.C. and N.Y.C.P. below. Hotel china was marked with a simple monogram formed of the initials J. C. Mr. Carr produced a variety of wares and bodies during the thirty-five years of the New York City Pottery's existence, among which were majolica and Parian, of excellent quality and artistic workmanship. He employed some of the best decorators that could be procured. A representative collection of Mr. Carr's products may be seen in the Pennsylvania.
Remmey & Croluis, New York, NY
One of the earliest stoneware potteries in America was that established by John Remmey, a German, about 1735. This factory was situated at "Potter's Hill," near the old City Hall. This pottery remained in operation until about 1820.
Salamander Works, New York, NY
About 1836 the Salamander Works were established in New York City, for the manufacture of flower-pots, milk pans, jugs and other household ware. Little is known of the history of this establishment, but it is believed to have continued in operation during the breaking out of the Civil War. The ware produced there was of a yellowish or grayish pottery body, with a brown glaze of excellent quality. A pitcher or jug is in the collection of the Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia. The mark, which is nearly three inches in width, is an oval enclosing the words "Salamander Works, New York." The company closed in 1850.
The Onondaga Pottery Co,, Syracuse, NY
In 1871, the Onondaga Pottery Co. was organized for the manufacture of white granite ware. The Arms of New York State was the mark on this grade of ware, from 1874 to 1893, when its manufacture was discontinued. From 1890 to 1893 the "Imperial Geddo" mark was used, on the first china made by this company. In the latter year a new mark was substituted for this ware and discontinued in 1895. From that date until 1897 the globe mark was employed.
Semi-porcelain ware, from 1886 to 1898, was marked "Semi-Vitreous," and since 1897 the "Syracuse China" mark has been in use. Mrs. Adelaide Alsop-Robineau has recently been decorating porcelain hotel ware in underglaze designs form this company. Her work is marked with her initials. Mrs. Robineau stands among the foremost decorators in the National League of Mineral Painters, her work is original as well as of of high order of merit.
In 1966 the Onondaga Pottery Co changed its name to the Syracuse China Company, which remained in business until 2009.
The Brockmann Pottery Co., Cincinnati, OH
Messrs. Tempest, Brockman & Co. established a pottery in Cincinnati in 1862. In 1881 the name was changed to the Tempest, Brockmann & Sampson Pottery Co., and in 1887 the Brockman Pottery Co. was organized by Mr. C.E. Brockmann. The products are cream-colored and white granite wares. The earliest mark of this establishment was the English lion and unicorn with the initials T.B. & Co. beneath. Since 1887 the same mark has been employed for cream colored ware, with the letters B.P. Co. On white granite the same device is used with the addition of the words “Warranted Best Ironstone China.” The company operated until 1913.
The Rookwood Pottery Co., Cincinnati, OH
The history and achievements of the Rookwood Pottery are so familiar to every one that it is not considered necessary to review them here. Established in 1879 it has steadily forged ahead, under the management of Mr. William W. Taylor, the efficient president of the company, until it now stands at the front rank of American Art potteries. Rookwood was the originator of that class of pottery, now so extensively imitated, in which the decorations are painted beneath a brilliant glaze on tinted and blended grounds. The work in every department is thoroughly systemized, and the history of every piece is stamped or pained upon it in a series of marks, which form a portion of the records of the factory. The company still operates today.
No factory in the United States has been so prolific in marks as Rookwood, there being upwards of 130 different devices found stamped upon the wares, exclusive of the numerous record numbers, letters and date symbols. These marks are of five kinds:
- Factory Marks
- Clay or Body Marks
- Size Marks
- Esoteric or Process Marks
- Decorators’ Marks
The factory marks used at different periods are of twelve varities. The most common marks prior to 1882 were the name of the pottery and the date of manufacture, which were painted or incised on the base of each piece by the decorator. A variation of this consisted of the initials of the pottery and of the founder, R.P.C.O.M.L.N (Rockwood Pottery, Cincinnati, Ohio, Maria Langworth Nichols). Previous to 1883 an anchor was stamped in the ware or placed upon it in relief, occasionally in connection with a date. This mark is one of the rarest. In 1882 a special mark was used on a trade piece—a large beer tankard—made for the Cincinnati Cooperage Co. The letters were impressed in a raised ribbon. From 1880 to 1882 a design prepared by Mr. H.F. Farny was printed in black beneath the glaze. It represents a pottery kiln and two rooks.
In 1883 a small kiln mark was impressed in the ware. About this period the name of the pottery was stamped on some pieces. An oval mark, bearing the name and address of the factory and a date, was also used for a short time. Mrs. Maria Longworth Storer (Mrs. Bellamy Storer), the founder, has continued her experiments since the factory passed into the hands of the Rookwood Pottery Co., and on many of her recent pieces will be found her initials (MLS), which are scratched in clay or pained on the surface, frequently accompanied by a date.
The regular mark adopted in 1882 was the word Rookwood and the date, impressed. This was continued until 1886, the date being changed each year. The monogram mark, consisting of the letters R.P. was first adopted in 1886. In 1887 a flame point was placed above the monogram, and one point has been added each year since. The mark for 1900, therefore, possesses fourteen points.
In 1900 the same mark was used with the addition of a Roman numeral below, to indicate the first year of the new century.
The clay or body marks consist of six different letters, G.O.R.S.W. and Y., indicating Ginger color, Olive, Red, Sage Green, White or Yellow, as the case may be:
The size marks of vases are marked by the letters A to F, inclusive, in connection with these are various numbers, which indicate the shapes and designs. These are entered on the records of the factory.
Esoteric or process marks are occasionally impressed on pieces of Rookwood ware, often accompanied by varying record numbers. As these characters only occur on experimental pieces, they are seldom found on examples which leave the factory, and their significance is never divulged. For the benefit of those who may come across such marks, however, they are shown here:
It is customary at the Rookwood Pottery for the decorators to cut their initials or monograms on the bottoms of the pieces painted by them. Among the decorators are many who stand high in their profession, not only as underglaze painters, but as artists in water colors and oil. Possessors of beautifully executed designs in Rookwood will be interested in learning the name of the painters. These pieces will increase in value as the years go by. The following are believed to be a complete presentation of the marks of all the regular decorators who have been connected to the pottery since its beginning.
The Cincinnati Art Pottery Co.
The Cincinnati Art Pottery co., with Frank Huntington as president, commenced operations in Cincinnati in 1879. A variety of artistic wares was produced, such as underglaze faience, barbotine ware, Hungarian, Portland Blue and Ivory-Colored Faience. Three distinguishing marks were employed, the first one being the figure of a turtle. About 1886 the Indian name for turtle Kezonta, was added, being printed on the finer grades of ware in red. On the plainer wares, such as blue glazed and white pottery, furnished in artistic shapes for decorators, the word Kezonta was impressed. About 1890 an impressed mark, consisting of the initials of the name of the company, was used, to a limited extent, on decorated ware. This pottery was closed about 1891. Some of the white pottery, covered with dark blue glaze or enamel, are ornamented with arabesque designs in golf, was original in shape and decorative treatment and of a highly artistic character.
Matt Morgan Art Pottery Company, Cincinnati, OH
About the year 1883 an art pottery was established in Cincinnati by Matt Morgan, an English artist, who had a few years before been brought to this country by the publisher of a New York periodical. In Cincinnati, he afterwards met George Ligowsky, the inventory of clay pigeons, and as Morgan had formally obtained some knowledge of pottery making in Spain he induced Ligoweky to make some trials with certain clays and furnished some pieces of Spanish-Moresque ware as suggestions toward the development of an art product. This was the beginning of the Matt Morgan Pottery, which was later turned into a stock company. This venture was at first quite promising. The wares produced were original in design and treatment. Slip-decorated pottery in the Limoges underglaze style was developed along original lines. Moresque pottery was also produced in rich colorings and lusters, artistically modeled and profusely gilded. Some of the pieces were covered with a brilliant glaze, which others possessed a matte finish. Competent decorators, such a Matt A. Daly and other now prominent painters, worked enthusiastically, and the shapes were principally designed and modeled by Herman C. Mueller in conjunction with Mr. Morgan. The cause of the failure of the company after about a year was caused by the effort of the stockholder to place the business on a commercial basis, at the expense of the artistic element. After the company failed, the molds, models and remaining stock of ware, were practically thrown away. Very few art potteries in this country started under as favorable circumstance as did the Matt Morgan pottery, and some of the pieces which were turned out reveal a high order of artistic merit, while many of the best examples are now owned by art connoisseurs in Cincinnati and other places. Mr. Morgan closed his career as art director of a large lithographic establishment. The mark used on some of the pieces was the title of the company impressed, sometimes containing the abbreviated name of the city in the center and sometimes without. The initials of the decorators were also scratched in the clay. One of these was Mr. N.J. Hirschfeld (N.J.H.). The firm closed within a year, although Morgan's work is prized, his work is held in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Avon Pottery, Cincinnati, OH
The Avon Pottery was founded in January 1886 and was in existence for a period of a year and a half to two years. One variety of ware they produced here was made of yellow clay, decorated in colored slips and modeled or etched in part. This was treated in a “smear” or dull glaze finish. Another variety was made of white clay, decorated with atomized colors and painted designs on the biscuit and covered with a brilliant transparent glaze. The effect of the atomized coloring was a gradual shading of the ground from light to darker tints, in pink, olive, violet, blue, brown, etc. All of the pieces were thrown on the wheel, while some were furnished with modeled handles. In the Pennsylvania Museum collection are several vases of this character, including two with green tinted ground and covers, and handles in the form of elephants’ heads. The collection of Dr. Marcus Benjamin of Washington D.C. is a mug-shaped cup of graceful shape with a tinted ground shading from white to dark pink and a modeled ram’s horn handle. Some of the pieces made at this pottery were marked with the name “Avon.” The company was short lived, going of of business in 1888.
Miss M. Louise McLaughlin, Cincinnati, OH
Miss M. Louise McLaughlin who has been identified with the pottery movement in Cincinnati since the Centennial in 1876, has, during the past five years, been experimenting in porcelain bodies, and has now perfected several new bodies which she will hereafter produce at a little pottery erected on the grounds adjoining her residence. The marks she is using are her monogram, and the name Losanti, derived from the early name of the city, Losantiville. These are usually impressed in the paste, but occasionally painted in blue. A vase made by Louise McLaughlin is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The Harker Pottery Co., East Liverpool, OH
The Harker Pottery Co., was incorporated in 1890. The business was established by Benjamin Harker, Sr., in 1840, when the manufacture of yellow and Rockingham wares was begun. From 1847 to 1850 or later the firm name was Harker, Taylor & Co. They produced Rockingham pieces, such as hunting and hound-handled pitchers., bearing an embossed and impressed stamp. George S. Harker & Co. followed some years later. Since 1879 white granite and semi-porcelain have been the staple products of these works. The two marks show here—a bow and arrow with the initial of the company,--have been used for a number of years. The Harker Pottery Co. at one time decorated the goods made at other potteries, a is shown by a white granite portrait plate bearing the impressed factory mark of Burroughs, Mountford & Co., of Trenton, and the subjoined arrow and monogram device, printed in black. This piece was produced in 1892.
The Goodwin Pottery Co., East Liverpool, OH
Mr. John Goodwin established a pottery in East Liverpool, Ohio for the production of yellow and Rockingham ware in 1844. In 18766, after Mr. Goodwin’s death his three sons succeed him, and in 1893, the Goodwin Pottery Company was incorporated. Their products are pearl white, cream-colored and decorated wares, semi-porcelain and ironstone china, or white granite. The company made pottery until 1913. The various marks used by the company are below:
The Smith-Phillips China Co., East Liverpool, OH
The company manufactured hotel china and semi-porcelain ware. Mark for hotel chine, the firm name in a circle. Marks used on toilet wares of the “Kosmo” and “Fenix” patterns. Marks used on dinner ware are “American Girl” and “Smith-Phillips Semi Porcelain”. Begun in 1901, the company survived until the Great Depression in 1929.
The Vodrey Pottery Co, East Liverpool, OH
The Vodrey Pottery Co. was incorporated in 1896. Its predecessors were Woodward & Vodrey, who commenced business in 1848; Woodward, Blakeley & Co., 1849; Vodrey & Brother, 1857. The company manufactured white granite and semi-porcelain. The marks used since 1879 are shown below, the first nine being used on dinner ware and the other five on toilet shapes. The company remained in business until 1928.
The William Brunt Pottery, East Liverpool, OH
The firm of William Brunt, Son & Co. began business about 1850. The William Brunt Pottery Co. (Phoenix Pottery) was incorporated in 1894. The present products are ironstone china and decorated wares. The marks used before incorporation were a crescent, and a parallelogram enclosing the firm’s initials. The British Arms, with the date or incorporation, was used on white granite. Other marks, mainly on toilet and tables wares, are shown below:
The Knowles, Taylor and Knowles, Co., East Liverpool, OH
The potter plant of the Knowles, Taylor & Knowles Co. was claimed to be the most extensive in America. The works were established by Isaac W. Knowles and Isaac A. Harvey. They began with a single kiln, which they used alternatively for firing the body of yellow ware and glazing it. In 1870, Mr. Knowles, who became the sole proprietor, formed a partnership with Col. John N. Taylor and Homer S. Knowles. Two years later they began the manufacture of white granite ware. In 1888, Joseph G. Lee and Willis A. Knowles were admitted to the firm, and in 1891 a stock company was incorporated under the name of Knowles, Taylor & Knowles Co. The products of this manufacturer have been varied and extensive, the principal being white granite, semi-vitreous porcelain and hotel china. Some of the most artistic ware ever produced in America has been made here. In 1893 they bean the manufacture of a fine art porcelain of beautiful Chinese white body and velvety glaze, which they named “Lotus” ware. This was sold principally in the white state for decorated, but was finally abandoned on account of its costliness. At present, the company operates more than thirty-five kilns and employs upwards of seven hundred hands (as of 1907). The company went out of business during the Great Depression in 1929.
The marks used at various times since 1872 are as follows: Bison mark, on white granite or stone china; variation of same on hotel china and white granite; same mark on ironstone or white granite.
Eagle trade-mark on ironstone china, 1879; Variation of same, used in 1881. Eagle Mark, “Warranted Granite.”
Eagle and monogram mark, on semi-porcelain. Crescent and start mark used on “Lotus” ware. Eagle mark used on various wares.
The following marks have been used by the company on table and toilet services, to indicate the shapes and decorations or patterns: Montana, Dakota, Detroit, Yale, Wyoming, Iowa, Washington, Berlin, Oberlin, Harvard, Virginia, Stanford, Princeton, Cornell, St. Paul, Florida, Tacoma, Maine and Utah.
The D.E. McNicol Pottery Co., East Liverpool, OH
The Novelty Pottery Works operated by the McNicol Pottery Co., were erected in 1863 by John Goodwin. The present products on cream colored ware and white granite:
The C. C. Thompson Pottery Co., East Liverpool, OH
Messrs. C.C. Thompson & Co. established a pottery in 1868. They made a display of pottery at the Centennial in 1876. The 1880 style was changed to the C.C. Thompson Pottery Co. The products made were cream colored and decorated ware, Rockingham and yellow ware. The mark on their semi-granite ware is a winged lion. Their toilet services are designed by the marks Sydney, Leland and Oregon. Dinner ware are marked Melrose, Drexel, etc. The company survived until 1938.
The Homer Laughlin China Co, East Liverpool, OH
In 1874 Homer and Shakespeare Laughlin established a pottery under the name Laughlin Bros. From 1879 to 1897 the first named carried on the business alone, and in the latter year the style became Homer Laughlin China Co. The products of this factory were mainly white granite, although in later years semi-vitreous china and higher grade wares have been manufactured to some extent. The marks used a this establishment on white granite represent the supremacy of the American Eagle over the British Lion. The same device is employed in connection with a ring on semi-vitreous china toilet and table services, the name of the pattern printed beneath, such as Colonial, Golden Gate and An American Beauty.
A horseshoe and crossed swords compose the mark that has been used on a line of Laughlin china. Hotel ware is marked with a monogram, and with a circular stamp. The company survived until 2021.
The Potters’ Co-Operative Co., East Liverpool, OH
The Dresden works of the Potters’ Co-operative have been in existence since 1876, having been established by Messrs. Brunt, Bloor, Martin & Co. This firm made an exhibit at the Centennial Exposition. Their products are white granite and decorated table and toilet wares, vitreous and hotel china. T.P.C. Co.
The mark of this company, used on white granite ware, is a wreath, enclosing the name Dresden. The same mark is place on semi-porcelain. For hotel china, the mark is impressed in type. The Potters' Co-Operative lasted until 1925.
Cartwright Brothers, East Liverpool, OH
The Industrial Pottery Works are operated by Messrs. Cartwright Brothers. They manufacture cream colored Ware, semi-granite, and ivory decorated ware. Their mark on their general line is an ellipse enclosing the firm name. On certain patterns and shapes their marks are Texas, Avalon, Brooklyn and Elsmere.
The Globe Pottery Co., East Liverpool, OH
The Globe Pottery Co. incorporated in 1888, began making common wares about 1881 under the firm name Frederick, Shenkle, Allen & Co. The products were semi-porcelain toilet and table wares, plain and decorated. The marks were a star on the Sirius pattern, a globe on the Progress and Festoon patterns, a shell on the Nautilus pattern, a globe surmounted by a crown, on the “Regal” pattern of dinner ware. On hotel china, the initials of the company. The company produced its ware until 1901 and then ceased, it resumed production between 1907 and 1912.
The Wallace & Chetwynd Pottery Co., East Liverpool, OH
Manufacturer of semi-vitreous opaque china. The mark is a stag’s head. Their china was produced between 1882 and 1901.
The United States Pottery , East Liverpool, OH
On their Raleigh, Champion and Admiral patterns the names of the market in written characters (see also East Liverpool Potteries Co.)
The East Liverpool Pottery Co.
This company manufactured Waco china and decorated wares, principally in white granite body. Their first mark was a modification of the British Coat of Arms, which is found on souvenir china made for the Presidential Campaign of 1896. Later marks contained the name Waco China in printed letters in combination with the companies monograph.
On china made for the daughters of Rebecca the subjoined mark was placed.E L.P. Co. Waco China.
The George C. Murphy Pottery Co, East Liverpool, OH
Products were semi-porcelain and decorated ware. The marks included Paris and Manhattan.. The products were made between 1897-1901 and 1903-1904.
The East End Pottery, East Liverpool, OH
The products of this pottery are white granite, porcelain and decorated wares, and include marks with Columbus and Alaska. They produced pottery between 1894 and 1901 and then again between 1903 and 1907.
The East Liverpool Potteries Co.
This consolidated company owned the plants of the Globe Pottery, the Wallace & Chetwynd Pottery, the United States Pottery, The East Liverpool Pottery, The George C. Murphy Pottery, and the East End Pottery. On all wares produced by these potteries, under the present combination, a uniform mark, the shield of the United States if printed.
The Union Potteries Co, East Liverpool, OH
The Union Potteries of East Liverpool and Pittsburgh, PA uses for mark a monogram on Corinne china. On general ware a wreath was formerly used, enclosing the words Union China”. Other marks are an eagle, on Corinne china and a United States flag on the Sigsbee pattern. The company went of out business in 1905.
The Burford Bros. Pottery Co, East Liverpool, OH
On their general ware, their mark is a shield, on hotel ware the word Hotel, on porcelain and china bodies: The company ceased making product in 1904.
On various shapes and patterns of dinner and toilet wares:
The Taylor, Smith & Taylor Co., East Liverpool, OH
The Taylor, Lee & Smith Co., incorporated in 1899 was the predecessor of the present Taylor, Smith & Taylor Co. Subjoined are the marks of the original company (the acronym TST), for semi-porcelain and white granite. The company produced China until 1972.
The West End Pottery Co., East Liverpool, OH
Organized in 1893, having succeeded Messrs. Burgess & Co. The products are iron-stone china and fine decorated ware. The initials W.E.P. Co. is used. The firm produced product until 1938.
The Sevres China Co., East Liverpool, OH
The company began business in 1899. The mark is a spear head of conventionalized fleur-de-lis, adopted from a mark used at the Sevres factory in France about 1830. The regular ware was marked “Sevres.” On dinner ware is placed the name “Geneva.” Toilet ware is marked “Berlin” and “Melton”. The mark for Hotel China is the name, beneath the word “Sevres.” The company produced its products until 1908.
The Edwin M. Knowles China Co., East Liverpool, OH
Began operating in 1901. The mark for semi-porcelain is the figure of a vase. That for white granite consists of the initials of the company. The initials E.M.K. C. Co. are used. The company lasted until 1963.
The Wellsville China Co., Wellsville, Ohio
Messrs. Morley & Co. established a pottery in this place in 1879, for the production of white granite and majolica. The marks used on these wares are shown here. For the former, the design consisted of a wreath enclosing a shield bearing the firm’s initials. For the latter, the name of the ware with the firm’s name and address. In 1885, the Pioneer Pottery Co. was organized. On white granite the lion and unicorn supporting a shield was used. On their “Imperial China,” a garter or strap, enclosing the company’s monogram, was employed, and on porcelain a circular stamp bearing the initials of the works.
In 1896, a new company was formed under the name of the Wellsville Pioneer Pottery Co. The principal product was semi-porcelain. Two marks were used, a star with eagle in the center, and the initials of the company in type.
Later, these works, having changed hands, were operated by the Wellsville China Co., semi-porcelain continuing to be made under the new management. The “Liberty” mark was used at one time on a special order of goods for a customer. The company remained in business until 1922.
The United States Pottery Co., Wellsville, OH
This company began operations in 1899. They manufacture a high grade of semi-vitreous porcelain. The marks is the shield of the United States. The made pottery until 1901.
J.H. Baum, Wellsville, OH
J. H. Baum manufactured semi-granite ware between 1888 and 1896, at which date the factory was closed.
The Steubenville Pottery Co., Steubenville, OH
This company was formed in November of 1879 for the purpose of manufacturing white granite and other wares. About ten years after the company commenced operations a new, semi-vitreous, opaque body, of a rich cream color and unusually light weight, was introduced under the name of canton China,” which has since formed an important specialty of the factory. At present the products consist of semi-vitreous and porcelain, granite and decorated wares. The marks used indicate particular shapes in toilet and dinner services are as follows:
Beula, the map of the State of Ohio
Florence, a pinned label
Belle, an ornamental label
Vesta, a suspended label
Clio, the name in fancy lettering
Don, a shield in the ring
Day, a painter’s palette.
The above pattern marks were in use between 1890 and 1895.
The marks used on the general lines of white granite and Canton China are: Two lions supporting a shield, on white granite. The British Arms, on the same. A wreath enclosing the company’s name, also on white granite. A modification of the same mark. The monogram of the company, on semi-vitreous Canton China. The name of the ware on Canton China. A submerged globe and U.S. flag, on porcelain granite. The company closed in 1959.
The Lonhuda Pottery, Zanesville, OH
This company was established in 1892, the name was derived from the first syllables of the names of its projectors, Messrs. Long, Hunter and Day. The pottery, after a few years was moved to Zanesville, OH. The products were underglaze slip-painted wares with shaded and blended grounds. The mark first employed was a monogram of the company, in conventionalized style. In 1893, a new mark was adopted, consisting of an Indian’s head. This was used on shape adapted from aboriginal American pottery forms. A profile head was used later. In 1890, a shield mark was substituted. All of these were impressed in clay.
The numbers impressed on Lonhuda pieces related to the forms. At a later date Dr. W.A. Long, one of the original members of the firm, went to Denver, Colorado where he organized a new company. Lonhuda ware is now being made there (the Denver China and Pottery Co.). The firm closed in 1896.
Other marks which occur on Lonhuda pottery are the initials and monograms of the decorators as follows, in order: Miss Laura A. Fry Miss Sara R. McLaughlin Miss Helen M. Harper Mr. W.A. Long Miss Jessie R. Spaulding
S.A. Weller, Zanesville, OH
.A. Weller produces several varieties of art potteries in underglaze decorations. They are known as “Eosian,” “Aurelian,” “Louwelsa,” “Auroral,” “Dickens,” and “Taruda” wares. Dickens ware is entirely different from the others, having a matt finish. The marks are the names of these wares. In 1901, Mr. J. Sicard, formerly connected with the pottery of Clement Massier of Golfe Juan, France, came to the United States and resumed his experiments in metallic lustre work at the pottery of Mr. S.A. Weller. He has now perfected an art ware which has been named Sicardo-Weller ware. The decoration consists of floral and other devices in metallic lustres on an iridescent ground of different tints, the effect being novel and highly artistic. The following marks of decorators are found on art ware produced at the pottery. The company produced its works until 1948.
The J.B. Owens Pottery, Zanesville, OH
This company manufactures art vases, lamps, jardinieres, pedestals and specialties with underglaze decorations, which are painted by competent artists. A considerable corps of decorators is employed, who place their names or initials on their work. Possessors of art wares are always interested in knowing something about the pieces which come into their possession. For their benefit a list of these painters and their marks is here given:
The marks used on several distinct varieties or styles of ware, Utopian, Feroza and Henri Deux are shown.
Sometimes other marks will be found on pieces from this establishment. These are experimental marks, of no significance to the purchaser, but relating to certain records at the factory. The more common are these are here figured.
The company began making pottery in 1885 and made it until 1928. Some of the company's pottery is part of the collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The American Encaustic Tiling Co, Zanesville, OH
Embossed tiles made by the American Encaustic Tiling Co. and marked H.M. were modeled by Herman C. Mueller, previous to 1893. The products of this factory are usually stamped on the back with the initials of the company (A.E.T. Co.). The company produced tiles in Zanesville from 1892 through to 1935.
The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, OH
This company was organized by Mr. Herman C. Mueller and Mr. Karl Langenbeck for the manufacture of mosaic tiling. The designs are produced by sifting the different colors of powdered clay through stencils and subjecting the die to great pressure. The effect is that of mosaic work. The mark stamped on the back of the tiles is the monogram of the company. Mosaic Tile Co. was started in 1894 and closed in 1967
The French China Co., Sebring, OH
The French China Co., manufactures table and toilet wares in white granite and semi-porcelain bodies. On La Francaise porcelain the accompany mark is used. On different patterns and shapes the following appear: Lygia dinner ware, Greek toilet service, Kenneth toilet set, Tiger toilet service, Pluto toilet set and Cupid toilet pattern. The company made china between 1898 and 1932.
The Sebring Pottery Co, Sebring, OH
Messrs. Sebring Brothers & Co. established the American Pottery Works at East Liverpool, OH in 1887, for the manufacture of white granite and other decorated wares in dinner and tea services. The Sebring Pottery Co. is now making semi-vitreous and porcelain wares. The marks on these bodies, and on their Kokus china, are shown here.Sebring Pottery Co. merged with the American Limoges China Company in 1940.
The Oliver China Co., Sebring, OH
The Oliver China Co. manufactures Verus porcelain, in dinner and toilet sets, jardinieres, pedestals and specialties, such as clocks, fancy dishes, fern trays and articles for the wholesale drug trade and hospitals. This pottery has been in operation since October 1899 and closed in 1908.
The East Palestine Pottery Co. East Palestine, OH
This company manufactures semi-porcelain, jardinieres and specialties, plain and decorated. The mark is a wreath enclosing the company monogram, with the name of the pattern beneath, such as Revere, Columbia and Lafayette Porcelain. The company operated from 1890 to 1902.
The Ohio China Co, East Palestine, OH
The Ohio China Co, uses as a trade-mark on Limonges Porcelain the initials of the company and the name of the ware.
The Crooksville China Co., Crooksville, OH
This company produces high-grade porcelain, semi-vitreous and decorated toiled and dinner wares. The marks is a dove bearing in its beak a scroll inscribed with the company’s name. The company existed between 1902 and 1959.
The American China Co., Toronto, OH
The American China Co., was organized in 1897 for the manufacture of semi-porcelain and white granite wares. On the former a mark composed of flags and a shield, is used. The Arms of Great Britain appear on white granite ware. Toilet-set patters are marked with the name, as Biltmore or Eugenia. The company was in business from 1898 through 1910.
The Cambridge Art Pottery Co., Cambridge, OH
This company manufactures faience vases, jardinieres, pedestals and clay specialties. The mark is an acorn bearing the monogram of the company. The various patters and shapes of service are printed beneath such as Oakwood, Cambridge, Acorn and Guernsey. The company produced pottery between 1901 and 1910.
The Bradshaw China Co., Niles, OH
This company produces white granite ware of a superior quality. The decorations are mainly in the decalcomania style. The mark is a brad piercing the word “shaw.” The company did business between 1901 and 1910, when it became the Tritt China Co.
The Thomas China Co., Lisbon, OH
This company makes dinner and toilet sets in semi-porcelain. Also, hotel ware, jardinieres and specialties. The marks are composed on the name of the company. The company did business in Lisbon between 1901 and 1957.
The Akron China Co., Akron, OH
This company manufactures decorated dinner and toilet wares and specialties in white granite and hotel ware. The marks are the British Arms for white granite, and a monogram for Revere china. The company was in business from 1894 to 1909.
The Florentine Pottery Co., Chillicothe, OH
This company makes a specialty of faience and art ware, such as vases, pedestals, jardinieres and umbrella stands. The mark is a flower-pot surrounded by the names of the pottery and the town. The company was in business between 1901 and 1905.
The Bell Pottery Co., Findlay, OH
The Bell Pottery Co. produces vitreous translucent china. The accompanying mark is impressed in the heavier wear. Mark printed on their china fancy articles, under the glaze is B. P. Co. above F.O. The pottery began doing business in 1890 and went out of business in 1906.
Roseville Pottery, Zanesville, OH
Among the recent applicants for popular favor is the Roseville Pottery Co. of Zanesville. The ware produced there is underglaze decorated pottery made from local clays. It is cast in molds and ground-tinted by spraying and blending the colors by means of compressed air brushes. The decorations are then painted with slip colors on the damp clay and when thoroughly dry the ware is subjected to its first firing. The glaze is then applied and the pieces are fired a second time. The mark is a circle enclosing a rose and the name Rozane Ware. The company produced pottery from 1890 until 1954.
The Mayer Pottery Co., Ltd., Beaver Falls, PA
The Mayer Pottery Co. was organized in 1881. Their productions have been white granite and toilet ware, underglaze decorations and colored glazes. At present their specialty is semi-vitreous china, plain and decorated. White granite ware was marked, between 1881 and 1891, with a square enclosing a circle and the firm name, J E & Mayer. The vase and scroll mark was placed on semi-vitreous china and on overglaze decorated dinner and tea services. The arms of the State of Pennsylvania was used on semi-vitreous china. The Nile and Amazon shapes were for toilet use, the marks being scrolls bearing the names. The following marks have been used on special patterns of underglaze printed tableware.
Additional marks of this company were used on Harvard, Columbia and Duquesne patterns, printed beneath the glaze in various colors. Previous to the fire which destroyed much valuable factory at this factory, in 1896, other marks were used on special services, such as the Diana, Potomac and Windsor patterns.
The Derry China Co., Derry Station, PA
The Derry China Co. manufactures and decorates semi-vitreous china.
Thomas and John Vickers, Downingtown, PA
Thomas Vickers established a pottery near Downingdown previous to the year 1806. One of his day books, extending over a period from this date to 1813, has been preserved, and from the entries we learn that he produced at various times red earthenware, sgraffito ware, black glazed pottery, "domestic queensware" and green enameled ware. Among the articles enumerated are pie plates, milk pots, "basons," jugs, pitchers, bowls, mugs, cups, coffee and tea pots, sugar bowls, cream cups, "salt cups," "bouquetts," cake molds, candlesticks, "salt sellers," mantel and toy figures, chimney ornaments, bread baskets, chimney stands, inkstands, dishes, plates and tobacco pipes, both glazed and unglazed. Thomas took his son John into the partnership under the name of Thomas Vickers & son. In 1822, the pottery was moved to Lionville, PA and the style became John Vickers and Son. Pieces of pottery have been found bearing the incised initials T.V. and also J.V.
Moravian Pottery and Tile Works, Doylestown, PA
Henry C. Mercer began experiments in the manufacture of art tiles several years ago in Doylestown. The common red clay of the vicinity is used, which is covered with a heavy enamel or colored glaze. The decorative motive, such as the conventional tulip, were suggested by the old iron stove plate of the Pennsylvania Germans. The mark is composed of the name of the pottery and the marker's monogram, enclosed in an arch. This is impressed in the ware. A variation of this mark is the word Moravian stamped in the clay in large type.
The Ford China Co, Ford City, PA
This company manufactures toilet and table ware, which is marked with the names of the pattern, "Victor," "Turin," "Leeds," "Bristol," and "Derby"
The Wick China Co., Kittanning, PA
This company manufacture ironstone and decorated ware. The mark is a circle enclosing a monogram, used on "Aurora" china.
Robertson Art Tile Co., Morrisville, PA
Hugh C. Robertson of Dedham, MA modeled a number of embossed tile designs for the Robertson Art Tile Co. His work was marked with his monogram. H.C.R.
The Newcastle Pottery Co., Newcastle, PA
The only mark that has as yet been used is here shown.
The Shenango China Co., Newcastle, PA
This company produces semi-vitreous china, plain and decorated. The mark is an Indian's head. The company began in 1901 and closed in 1992.
American China Manufactory, Philadelphia, PA
Hard porcelain was produced by William Ellis Tucker, in Philadelphia, as early as 1825. The first mark used was the name and address painted on the glaze in black. A vase-shaped pitcher bears this mark with the date 1828. In the latter year he too into partnership Thomas Hulme. The ware was of a superior quality, and the overglaze decorations were painted in colors by hand. Many of the designs were exceedingly artistic. The mark, penciled in red, consisted of the firm name and the date of production. Two varieties of this mark, which was used only during the year named, are known. In 1832 Judge Joseph Hemphill entered the partnership with Mr. Tucker , who died the same year.
Judge Hemphill continued the manufacture until about 1836. His mark, occasionally found, was similar to the preceding. Private marks of workmen are often found impressed on Tucker and Hemphill porcelain. A capital W, either in script or straight lines, was used, to a considerable extent, by Andrew Craig Walker, one of the foremost molders of this factory. Joseph Morgan, another molder, used a small written m, and occasionally a capital M. Charles Frederick, also a molder, scratched his initial in the paste, a capital F, in script. A capital H was the private mark of William Hand, an employee of the pottery. One Vivian, a Frenchman, marked his work with a capital V. A monogram, composed of the letters C and B, which are sometimes found on Tucker and Hempill pieces, is supposed to have been the private mark of Charles J. Boulter.
Bonnin & Morris, Philadelphia, PA
The earliest mark of any kind that has been discovered on American pottery or porcelain occurs on a small cream-ware fruit disk or openwork basket, with relief rosettes and painted blue decorations beneath the glaze, which was made at the china factory of Bonnin & Morris in Southwark, Philadelphia, about the year 1770. It is simply a capital letter P, penciled or painted in dark blue color under the glaze.
Galloway & Graff, Philadelphia, PA
Previous to the Centennial Exposition, Messrs. Galloway and Graff were manufacturing fine terra-cotta statuary and vases in Greek shapes for decorators. Their mark was the firm impressed. The factory, which was established in 1810, is now operating in West Philadelphia by Mr. WIlliam Galloway.
Kurlbaum & Schwartz, Philadelphia, PA
In 1851 experiments in the manufacture of hard porcelain were commenced in Kensington, Philadelphia, by Charles Kurlbaum and John T. Schwartz, chemists. Their mark is K & S. A mark found on one of the pieces resembles the letter T, scratched in the paste, and was probably the initial of one of the decorators or workmen. Manufacture ceased in 1855.
The Philadelphia City Pottery
Messrs. J.E. Jeffords & Co. commenced potting in Philadelphia in 1868. Their products are table and toilet wares, jardinieres and tea pots in colored glazes; Rockingham, yellow and blue glazed wares. They manufacture toby ale jugs and cow creamers in brown glaze, after the old shapes, and while not intended to deceive, these are such excellent reproductions of early patterns that examples frequently find their way into the shops of second hand dealers and are sold as genuine antiques at high prices. Much of the ware made by this firm is unmarked. Warranted Fireproof.
Ralph Bagnall Beech, Philadelphia, PA
Ralph Bagnall Beech was born in London in 1810 and in his youth entered the Wedgwood pottery where he learned the business in all its details. In 1845 he established a pottery of his own in Kensington, Philadelphia. He took out several patents, among which was one for "ornamenting baked earthenware," which was issued on June 3, 1851 (see patent No. 8140). His mark was as such (Ralph B. Beech).
Smith, Fife & Co, Philadelphia, PA
The firm of Smith, Fife & Co. exhibited two beautiful porcelain pitchers at the annual exhibition of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia in 1830.The manufacture does not appear to have continued for any length of time.Their marks is "Smith, Fife & Co., Manufacturers, Phila.," penciled in red.
The old German potters of Eastern Pennsylvania, who made slip-decorated and sgraffito earthenware from about 1730 to 1830 used but few marks. Some of the more recent wares are stamped with a circular mark containing relief figures, which indicate the sizes and shapes of the vessels. At the Joseph Smith Pottery in Bucks County, pieces were frequently marked, from about 1767 to the beginning of the last century, with the date of manufacture and the name of the name. One of these marks occurs on a large black glazed pottery barrel-shaped water vessel of large size. Other Pennsylvania-German potters used similar marks. Henry Roudebush made ornamental plates in Montgomery County on which his name is occasionally found. Examples that are known bear dates ranging from 1811 to 1816. In some instances his initials alone appear. Samuel Troxel, of the same county, also made sgraffito earthenware of a highly decorated character, which usually bore his name and dates from about 1823 to 1833. Occasionally his initials are found on the back of plates, scratched in the clay. George Hubener was another potter who had an excellent establishment in the same county between 1785 and 1798. He made earthenware decorated in sgraffito style, with figures of peacocks, tulips and other motives and inscriptions with the date of manufacture. Occasionally his name appears in full on large, circular dishes, and one example bears in initials in old German text.
The letters I.T. are found on molded red pottery dishes of octagonal form, with relief ornamentation, are supposed to be the initials of Jacob or Isaac Taney who operated a pottery in Bucks County. Several of these have to light, all bearing the date 1794. A pie plate with tulip decoration is marked with the name of Johan Drey, who is believed to have been a potter in Eastern Pennsylvania in 1899. Andrew Headman, whose pottery was situated at Rock Hill, Bucks County, in 1808 used the initials of his name on his wares. Other marks found on Pennsylvania-German pottery which have not been identified are P.V.M. and H.T..IS. T. Jacob Scholl of Tyler's Port produced the same class of ware about 1830. He occasionally used the mark of conventionalized fuchsia, a favorite flower of Pennsylvania Germans.
The Phoenix Pottery, Phoenixville, PA
The Phoenix Pottery, Kaolin and Fire Brick Co., was organized in Phoenixville, on May 7, 1867. The first products were fire brick, yellow and Rockingham wares. In 1872 the works were leased by W.A.H. Schreiber and J.F. Betz. animal heads in terra cotta were produced for wall decoration, and the manufacture of Parian was commended. Lithophanes or transparencies for windows and lamp shades were made to some extent. These were marked with the words, "Phoenix Pottery." On January 1, 1877 the pottery was leased to L.B. Beerbower and Henry R. Griffen, the partnership continuing for two years, during which period the mark being the Arms of the State of Pennsylvania, with the initials of the firm beneath. In 1879 the style became Griffen, Smith & Hill. In the following year the manufacture of "Etruscan Majolica" was begun. This was stamped with an impressed mark composed of the monogram G.S.H. surrounded by the name of the ware. On the uncolored ware they also used the circular Etruscan mark with the word Etruscan Ivory.
On June 1, 1894 the works were leased by E.L. Buckwalter and H.I. Brownback under the name Chester Pottery Company of Pennsylvania. The mark used by this firm in 1895 and 1896 on cream colored and semi-granite wares was the Arms of Pennsylvania, printed in black under the glaze. In 1897 the Keystone mark was substituted, bearing the initials of the company. Later these letters were used alone. The name of the concern was changed to the Penn China Co. in 1899.
Star Encaustic Tile Co., Pittsburgh, PA
This company was organized in 1882, succeeding to the business of the Pittsburgh Encaustic Tile Co., which began operations in 1876. The principal products have been unglazed encaustic tiles for flooring and pavements. The mark consists of the company initials S.E.T. Co.
An earthenware pottery was established in Berks County, PA at Womelsdorf, by John Menner, in 1784, which later passed into the hands of Josiah Beck, and in 1864 was bought by the present owner Willoughby Smith. Ordinary red, slip-decorated ware has been made here for perhaps nearly a century, such as pie plates, flower pots, apple butter and milk jars. A mark used by Mr. Smith on some of his earlier ware consists of his name and address impressed in the ware with type or a metal die.
The Southern Porcelain Co, Kaolin, SC
The Southern Porcelain Co. manufactured Parian and fine white china to a limited extent between 1856 and 1862. They also made brown stoneware telegraph insulators. The mark on the latter, and probably on other wares, was an impressed shield bearing the initials of the company's name. At the outbreak of the Civil War the pottery began making telegraph parts for the Confederacy.
The Norton Pottery Co., Bennington, VT (United States Pottery Co.)
The Norton Pottery was established at Bennington in 1793. At a later date (about 1839) Christopher Weber Fenton became a member of the firm. They made stoneware and brown glazed pottery. E. & L.P. Norton took the pottery about 1865 and continued it until 1882 when the style became E. Norton & Co. Salt glazed stoneware was the principal product. A mark consisting of a raised panel in which are impressed the words "Fenton's Works, Bennington, Vermont," was used on pieces of Parian ware produced about 1845, the first Parian to be made in the United States, some three years after it appeared in England. A pitcher so marked is decorated with relief designs of knights in armor and on the reverse side with a lady on horseback and a harper. The firm of Lyman, Fenton & Co. came into existence about 1848 or 1849. One of their specialties was the "Patent Flint Enameled" ware, a fine grade of Rockingham. the mark used on this variety of ware was a large ellipse, nearly three inches in width enclosing the inscription, "Lyman, Fenton & Co. Fenton's Enamel, Patented, 1849." This marks is frequently undecipherable having been almost or quite obliterated by the filing in of the glaze. In 1849 new buildings were erected and the style was changed to the United States Pottery. Parian ware was made in abundance. Porcelain biscuit toys and figures were also produced in large numbers. The Parian ware was marked with a raised ribbon or scroll bearing the initials of the pottery U.S.P. and two variable numbers, indicating the size and shape, or pattern. The pottery was closed in 1858. Other marks, found on different wares, are an ellipse enclosing the words United States Pottery, usually placed on "lava," "scrodled," or marbled ware and a relief label, of diamond shape, bearing the same lettering which occurs on porcelain or semi-porcelain. A large pitcher, modeled to represent the falling water of a cataract, bears the latter mark.
Nichols & Alford, Burlington, VT
This firm was manufacturing earthenware in Burlington, VT in the year 1854, as is indicated by a brown-glazed hound-handles pitcher bearing the annexed mark. It is said that some of the molds used here were obtained from the Bennington pottery, and it is probable that some of the workmen from the latter establishment went to Burlington. This firm also produced Rockingham ware and stone ware.
The Pauline Pottery Co., Edgerton, WI
The Pauline Pottery made underglaze decorated art wares from 1888 to some time about 1894. This pottery was originally established by Mrs. Pauline Jacobus in Chicago in 1883. The mark, impressed in the earlier pieces and printed in black on the later, consisted of a crown the the letter C, for Chicago.
Mrs. S. S. Frackelton, Milwaukee, WI
Mrs. Frackelton is widely known for her artistic creations in common salt-glazed stone-ware, and the mark which she uses is composed of the initials of her name: S.F.
A pottery was established in Morgantown, WV previous to 1785, which was operated after that date by James Thompson, who was succeeded by this son John W. Thompson. Later from about 1870 to 1890 Greenland Thompson, a son of the latter, continued the manufacture. The first product was lead-glazed red earthenware, and at a later period salt-glazed stoneware was made. The mark used on the latter was the name of the town, impressed. There are two varieties of this mark, one in full capitals and one in lower case letters. Dr. Walter Hough has directed attention to this interesting old pottery through a published report of investigations made by him in behalf of the Smithsonian Institution. At one time slip-decorated earthenware was produced at this establishment, as is shown by the large number of quill boxes and other primitive tools which have been brought to light.
Wheeling Pottery Co, Wheeling, WV
This company was organized in 1879. In 1887, a second company was formed under the same management, know as the La Belle Pottery Co., and about two years later the two companies were consolidated. The products of the original works were white granite wares, plain and decorated, while "Adamantine" china was made at the La Belle factory. Lately a new china body, termed "Cameo" china was introduced. This is quite thin and effectively decorated with artistic designs in various colors and in blue and gold. From 1880 to 1886, the first three of the marks shown here were used on white granite, and the fourth from 1886 to 1896.
From the latter date to the present time the flags and eagle mark was placed on the same quality of ware.
On semi-porcelain, known as "Adamantine" china, the next three marks were used from 1888 to 1893.
On another variety of semi-porcelain, called "La Belle" china, the two following marks were in use from 1893 to the present.
Since 1894, C.C. or cream-colored ware has been marked with a wreath enclosing the name of the company. In this body numerous souvenir designs related to the Spanish-American war were made.At the present time the printed name of the company is place on Cameo china.
Several special stamps are yet in use by this company, of which four are here reproduced.
The company went out of business in 1910.
The Ohio Valley China Co., Wheeling, WV
This company produced a fine grade of true hard porcelain in table wares, and for a time originated some highly artistic designs in vases with perforated parts and modeled figures of cupids and eagles in high relief. The decorations and coloring were on the glaze. This pottery was closed for several years after the Chicago Exposition, but recently it has been operated under the name of the Riverside Pottery, as a sanitary ware plant. The earlier mark on hotel porcelain and heavy goods was a shield in two styles, large and small, printed in green under the glaze. Later the initials of the company, O.V. were substituted. For artistic wares the mark consisted of the letters O.V. C. Co. arranged in a square with a W.V. in the center.
The Warwick China Co., Wheeling, WV
This company was organized in 1887 for the manufacture of semi-porcelain table and toilet goods. The first stamp to be used was a helmet with crossed swords, adopted about 1892, for marking novelties in semi-porcelain. From 1893 to 1 898 the "Warwick Semi-Porcelain" mark was in use, and from the latter date until present time the ware was stamped "Warwick China."
The Vance Faience Co., Wheeling, WV
The Vance Faience Co and Tiltonville, OH recently organized, manufactures a line of art faience in colored glazes and underglaze and overglaze decorations. The mark is stamped in the green ware with a steel die. Among other specialties this company is now reproducing the hound-handled hunting pitcher, modeled by Greatbach for the old Jersey City Pottery, from the original molds.
The Chelsea China Co, New Cumberland, WV
The mark used for a few years on the ware produced by this company, which was started in 1888, is a crescent and star. A modification of this device was used on their white granite ware at a somewhat later date.
- Marks of American Potters by Edwin Atlee Barber, 1904
- Pottery and porcelain of the United States;: An historical review of American ceramic art by Edwin Atlee Barber
- Potteries Society of Trenton
- The Museum of Ceramics
- Laurel Hollow Park
- Worth Point
- Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Philadelphia Museum of Art
- Museum of Modern Art